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Test Catalog

Test ID: BGAW    
Beta-Galactosidase, Blood

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis, Morquio syndrome B, and galactosialidosis in whole blood specimens

 

This test is not useful for carrier detection.

Genetics Test Information Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

The beta-galactosidase enzyme is deficient in the following conditions: GM1 gangliosidosis, Morquio syndrome B, and galactosialidosis.

Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Beta-galactosidase is a lysosomal enzyme responsible for catalyzing the breakdown of gangliosides. Isolated deficiency of this enzyme is expressed clinically as 2 different autosomal recessive diseases, GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio syndrome B (mucopolysaccharidosis IVB [MPS IVB] or Morquio B). Galactosialidosis (GS) is associated with a combined deficiency of beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase secondary to a defect in protective protein cathepsin A (PPCA). Enzymatic testing is not reliable for carrier detection of these conditions.

 

In GM1 gangliosidosis, reduced or absent beta-galactosidase activity leads to the accumulation of GM1 gangliosides, oligosaccharides, and keratan sulfate. The disorder can be classified into 3 subtypes that vary with respect to age of onset and clinical presentation. Type 1, or infantile onset, typically presents between birth and 6 months of age with a very rapid progression of hypotonia, dysostosis multiplex, hepatosplenomegaly, central nervous system degeneration, and death usually by 1 to 2 years old. Type 2 is generally classified as late infantile or juvenile with onset between 7 months and 3 years of age presenting with developmental delays and a slower progression. Type 3 is an adult or chronic variant with onset between 3 and 30 years of age and is typically characterized by slowly progressive dementia with Parkinsonian features and dystonia. The incidence has been estimated to be 1 in 100,000 to 200,000 live births.

 

In Morquio B, reduced or absent beta-galactosidase activity leads to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG), particularly keratan sulfate, in lysosomes and interferes with normal functioning of cells, tissues, and organs. Morquio B typically manifests as a systemic skeletal disorder with variable severity ranging from early severe disease to a later onset attenuated form. Virtually all patients have dysostosis multiplex and short stature along with other symptoms that may include coarse facies, hepatosplenomegaly, hoarse voice, stiff joints, cardiac disease, but no neurological involvement.

 

Galactosialidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by variants in the cathepsin A gene (CTSA) resulting in a combined deficiency of the enzymes beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase. The disorder can be classified into 3 subtypes that vary with respect to age of onset and clinical presentation. Typical clinical presentation includes coarse facial features, cherry-red spots, and skeletal dysplasia. The early infantile form is associated with fetal hydrops, visceromegaly, skeletal dysplasia, and early death, while the late infantile form is characterized by short stature, dysostosis multiplex, coarse facial features, corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or heart valve problems. Individuals of Japanese ancestry make up the majority of patients with the juvenile/adult form of GS and typically develop symptoms after 4 years of age. These include neurologic degeneration, ataxia, and angiokeratomas.

 

A diagnostic workup in an individual with GM1 gangliosidosis, Morquio B, or GS typically demonstrates decreased beta-galactosidase enzyme activity in leukocytes or fibroblasts; however, additional testing and consideration of the patient's clinical findings are necessary to differentiate between these conditions. Follow-up testing may include LSDS / Lysosomal Storage Disorders Screen, Random, Urine, which analyzes urine mucopolysaccharides, oligosaccharides, ceramide trihexosides, and sulfatides. The LSDS test can help differentiate between the 3 conditions to guide physicians in choosing the best confirmatory molecular testing option. See Lysosomal Storage Disorders Diagnostic Algorithm, Part 1 in Special Instructions.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

> or =5.0 nmol/hour/mL

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Results below 5.0 nmol/hour/mL in properly submitted specimens are consistent with beta-galactosidase deficiency (GM1 gangliosidosis, Morquio syndrome B, or galactosialidosis). Further differentiation between GM1, Morquio syndrome B, and galactosialidosis is dependent on the patient's clinical findings and results of additional biochemical testing.

 

Normal results (> or =5.0 nmol/h/mL) are not consistent with beta-galactosidase deficiency.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

This test cannot reliably determine carrier status.

 

This test does not differentiate between GM1 gangliosiosis, MPS IVB, and galactosialidosis.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Suzuki Y, Nanba E, Matsuda J, et al: Beta-galactosidase deficiency (beta-galactosidosis): GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet A, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed February 04, 2021. Available at https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=225547263

2. Regier DS, Tifft CJ: GLB1-related disorders. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle; 2013. Updated August 29, 2019. Accessed February 04, 2021. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK164500

3. d'Azzo A, Andria G, Bonten E, Annunziata I: Galactosialidosis. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet A, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed February 04, 2021. Available at https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=225547663

4. Arash-Kaps L, Komlosi K, Seegraber M, et.at: The clinical and molecular spectrum of GM1 gangliosidosis. Pediatr. 2019 Dec;215:152-157.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.08.016

Special Instructions Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test