Test Catalog

Test Id : 3A5Q

Cytochrome P450 3A5 Genotype, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aids in optimizing treatment with tacrolimus and other drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A5

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) With Allelic Discrimination Analysis

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

CYP3A5 Genotype, V

Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching


Calcineurin Inhibitor

Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) Genotyping




Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing


Ordering Guidance

Testing is available as the single gene assay (this test) and as a part of a psychotropic or focused pharmacogenomics panel.


If multiple pharmacogenomic genotype testing is desired, order PGXQP / Focused Pharmacogenomics Panel, Varies.


If genotype testing for psychotropic medications is desired, order PSYQP / Psychotropic Pharmacogenomics Gene Panel, Varies.

Additional Testing Requirements

In general, most drugs metabolized by CYP3A5 are also metabolized by CYP3A4 and usually to a greater degree than CYP3A5. For this reason, substrates of these 2 enzymes are sometimes listed together in publications and genotyping of both genes might be needed to fully understand the metabolism of these drugs and predict phenotype. If CYP3A4 genotyping is needed, order 3A4Q / Cytochrome P450 3A4 Genotype, Varies.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Multiple genotype tests can be performed on a single specimen after a single extraction. See Multiple Genotype Test List for a list of tests that can be ordered together.


Submit only 1 of the following specimens:


Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA)

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated


Specimen Type: Saliva

Patient Preparation: Patient should not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum 30 minutes prior to collection.

Supplies: Saliva Swab Collection Kit (T786)

Specimen Volume: One swab

Collection Instructions: Collect and send specimen per kit instructions.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient


Specimen Type: DNA

Container/Tube: 2 mL screw top tube

Specimen Volume: 100 mcL (microliters)

Collection Instructions:

1. The preferred volume is 100 mcL at a concentration of 50 ng/mcL.

2. Include concentration and volume on tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Frozen (preferred) 1 year/Ambient/Refrigerated

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test


1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send 1 of the following forms with the specimen:

-Neurology Specialty Testing Client Test Request (T732)

-Therapeutics Test Request (T831)

-Renal Diagnostics Test Request (T830)

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 0.4 mL

Saliva: 1 swab

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

  All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aids in optimizing treatment with tacrolimus and other drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A5

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

CYP3A5 is a member of the CYP3A family of genes located on chromosome 7. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A subfamily of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of more than 50% of medications that undergo hepatic metabolism and first-pass metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells. The CYP3A5 expression level and enzymatic activity can be modulated by genetic variation. CYP3A5 allelic frequency depends upon ethnicity. For example, in individuals of European descent the most common allele is the CYP3A5*3 allele (c.219-237A>G), which results in a splicing defect and absence of enzyme activity. In individuals of African descent, the *1 allele (functional enzyme) is most common. The distribution of CYP3A5*3 allele frequencies ranges from 0.14 among sub-Saharan Africans to 0.95 in European populations.


CYP3A5 testing is commonly ordered for patients receiving tacrolimus. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitor used in transplant recipients. Tacrolimus has a low therapeutic index with a wide range of side effects and large interindividual variability in its pharmacokinetics, particularly in the dose required to reach target trough blood concentrations, thus necessitating routine therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical practice.


Tacrolimus dose requirements are most closely associated with CYP3A5 genotype even though the drug is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. According to existing literature and Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines, individuals with at least one copy of fully functional CYP3A5 (ie, *1/*1 and *1/*3) require a higher dose of tacrolimus to reach the targeted whole blood concentrations than those without a copy of a fully functional CYP3A5 allele (ie, *3/*3) (2-5). CYP3A5 genotyping may predict dose requirements for tacrolimus but does not replace the need for therapeutic monitoring to guide tacrolimus dose adjustments. For a patient with the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype, initiating tacrolimus therapy with a standard (normal) dose is recommended. One of the complications in interpreting CYP3A5 genotyping results and the effect of genotype on drug dosing is the fact that most individuals involved in drug trials have been of European decent. Individuals of European decent are more likely to have the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype, which predicts a poor metabolizer phenotype. Dosing requirements were derived from these clinical trials so individuals with 1 or 2 copies of CYP3A5*1, will functionally behave as though they have increased activity and may require higher doses of CYP3A5 metabolized drugs.


The following table displays the CYP3A5 variants detected by this assay, the corresponding star allele, and the effect on CYP3A5 enzyme activity:

CYP3A5 allele

cDNA nucleotide change


Effect on enzyme activity


None (wild type)

Normal activity



No activity



No activity



No activity



Reduced activity



Reduced activity

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An interpretive report will be provided.


The genotype, with associated star alleles, is assigned using standard allelic nomenclature as published by Pharmacogene Variation (PharmVar) Consortium.(1)


For additional information regarding pharmacogenomic genes and their associated drugs, see the Pharmacogenomic Associations Tables in Special Instructions. This resource also includes information regarding enzyme inhibitors and inducers, as well as potential alternate drug choices.

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Rare variants may be present that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings (phenotype), additional testing could be considered.


Specimens may contain donor DNA if obtained from patients who received non-leukoreduced blood transfusions or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Results from specimens obtained under these circumstances may not accurately reflect the recipient's genotype. For individuals who have received blood transfusions, the genotype usually reverts to that of the recipient within 6 weeks. For individuals who have received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a pretransplant DNA specimen is recommended for testing.


CYP3A5 genetic test results in patients who have undergone liver transplantation may not accurately reflect the patient's CYP3A5 status.


This method may not detect all variants that result in altered CYP3A5 activity. Therefore, absence of a detectable variant does not rule out the possibility that a patient has altered CYP3A5 activity due to other CYP3A5 variants that cannot be detected with this method. Furthermore, when 2 or more variants are identified, the cis-/trans- status (whether the variants are on the same or opposite chromosomes) is not always known.


Drug-drug interactions and drug-metabolite inhibition must be considered.


Drug-metabolite inhibition can occur, resulting in inhibition of CYP3A5 catalytic activity.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. PharmVar: Pharmacogene Variation Consortium. Updated September 26, 2023. Accessed October 25, 2023. Available at www.pharmvar.org/

2. Birdwell KA, Decker B, Barbarino JM, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP3A5 Genotype and Tacrolimus Dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2015;98(1):19-24. doi:10.1002/cpt.113

3. Thervet E, Loriot MA, Barbier S, et al. Optimization of initial tacrolimus dose using pharmacogenetic testing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;87(6):721-726. doi:10.1038/clpt.2010.17

4. Lamba J, Hebert JM, Schuetz EG, Klein TE, Altman RB. PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP3A5. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012;22(7):555-558. doi:10.1097/FPC.0b013e328351d47f

5. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC). Accessed October 25, 2023. https://cpicpgx.org/

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Genomic DNA is extracted from whole blood or saliva. Genotyping for CYP3A5 alleles is performed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based 5'-nuclease assay. Fluorescently labeled detection probes anneal to the target DNA. PCR is used to amplify the section of DNA that contains the variant. If the detection probe is an exact match to the target DNA, the 5'-nuclease polymerase degrades the probe, the reporter dye is released from the effects of the quencher dye, and a fluorescent signal is detected. Genotypes are assigned based on the allele-specific fluorescent signals that are detected.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information


Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 8 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole blood/Saliva swab: 2 weeks; Extracted DNA: 2 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their account representative. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. It has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.


LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
3A5Q CYP3A5 Genotype, V 81140-6
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
610117 CYP3A5 Genotype 81140-6
610118 CYP3A5 Phenotype 79717-5
610119 Interpretation 69047-9
610120 Additional Information 48767-8
610121 Method 85069-3
610122 Disclaimer 62364-5
610123 Reviewed by 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | PHP Pdf | CMS Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports